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In the Roman empire, the army, rather than a dedicated police organization, provided security.

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This article is about law enforcement organizations. Law enforcement, however, constitutes only part of policing activity.

Under the reign of Augustus, when the capital had grown to almost one million inhabitants, 14 wards were created; the wards were protected by seven squads of 1,000 men called "vigiles", who acted as firemen and nightwatchmen.

Their duties included apprehending thieves and robbers and capturing runaway slaves.

In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves (the , "rod-bearers") was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, and also assisted with dealing with criminals, handling prisoners, and making arrests.

Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves.Some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives. The concept of the "prefecture system" spread to other cultures such as Korea and Japan.In ancient Greece, publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police.The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, and protect the pilgrims against robber knights.Throughout the Middle Ages such alliances were frequently formed by combinations of towns to protect the roads connecting them, and were occasionally extended to political purposes.They were appointed by local magistrates, who reported to higher authorities such as governors, who in turn were appointed by the emperor, and they oversaw the civil administration of their "prefecture", or jurisdiction.

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