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The metropolitan of Moscow, Makariy (1483-–1563) contributed above all, to the strengthened emphasis of the Moscow idea of the state.

To that extent, there was even a legal relationship between the Golden Horde and the Russian Orthodox Church since these rights had been conceded in a formal document (jarlig). This continuation of the "symphony" corresponded with the Orthodox idea of a state that protected the Orthodox Church and, therefore could call for loyalty.

Centuries later, the ecumenical patriarchs dealt hardly differently with the Ottoman rulers.

There is evidence that the first Christian bishop was sent to Novgorod from Constantinople either by Patriarch Photius or Patriarch Ignatius, circa 866-867 AD.

By the mid-10th century, there was already a Christian community among Kievan nobility, under the leadership of Greek and Byzantine priests, although paganism remained the dominant religion.

In 1448, the Russian Church in Moscow became effectively independent from the Patriarchate of Constantinople — when the Russian bishops in Moscow elected their own primate, Jonas, a Russian bishop, without recourse to Constantinople.

The Russian church within the bounds of the Grand Duchy of Moscow was thenceforth effectively autocephalous.This period saw a remarkable growth of monasticism.The Monastery of the Caves (Pecherska Lavra) in Kiev, founded in the mid-11th century by the ascetics St. Theodosius, was superseded as the foremost religious centre by the Monastery of the Holy Trinity, which was founded in the mid-14th century by St. Alexius (1354–78), supported the rising power of the principality of Moscow.) is traditionally said to have been founded by the Andrew the Apostle, who is thought to have visited Scythia and Greek colonies along the northern coast of the Black Sea. Andrew reached the future location of Kiev and foretold the foundation of a great Christian city.Orthodox Christian Constantinople's greatest mission outreach was to areas known as Kievan Rus that are now the states of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia.This date is often considered the official birthday of the Russian Orthodox Church.

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